The segregation principle states that in sexually reproducing diploid organisms the two copies of each gene
A. move together as a unit during meiosis.
B. segregate from each other during meiosis.
C. must always be the same allele.
D. will both wind up in either the sperm or egg.
E. separate from each other during mitosis.
What structure holds the sister chromatids to the spindle fibers?
Gregor Mendel was successful in his analysis of the genetics of pea plants because
A. he decided to only look at his results in an objective manner.
B. he examined and analyzed both the F1 and F2 generations.
C. he studied the parental plants to determine their differences.
D. pea plants have genetics different from other organisms.
E. he studied a trait that had a strange inheritance pattern.
Sickle cell anemia is an example of what type of inheritance?
A. complete dominance
B. multiple alleles
C. incomplete dominance
D. recessive dominance
If you view a cell in which the genetic material is beginning to be visible as separate bodies, and the nucleus has disappeared from view, you may surmise that the cells is in
Which of the following statements is true:
A. With dominant genetic disorders, the mother and/or father of an affected individual must also be affected.
B. In carriers, the recessive allele causes an intermediate phenotype.
C. With recessive genetic disorders, if both parents are carriers, the offspring will all be affected.
D. The dominant allele is masked in homozygous dominant individuals.
E. In recessive genetic disorders, the mother and/or father of an affected individual must also be affected.
Skin cancers typically develop in the
A. upper layers of the dermis.
B. subcutaneous layer.
C. lower layers of the epidermis.
D. upper layers of the epidermis.
E. lower layers of the dermis.
After the DNA is replicated, and it condenses in prophase, two identical rods of DNA are seen. These are
D. spindle fibers.
At the end of metaphase I, _______________ separate.
A. germ cells
B. sister chromatids
C. homologous chromosomes
E. haploid chromatids
Special cells found in the gonads that give rise to gametes upon division are called
A. germ cells.
B. somatic cells.
C. stem cells.
D. basal cells.
E. egg cells.
Cytokinesis in plant cells differs from cytokinesis in animal cells because
A. there is no difference.
B. a contractile ring forms only in plant cells.
C. the contractile protein, actin, is important only in plant cells.
D. in plant cells, the cell plate must also divide into two parts.
E. plant cells have a rigid cell wall.
In humans, a gene that has been identified as causing a type of skin cancer is the
A. sonic hedgehog.
B. superwoman echidna.
C. mutant mole rat.
D. mutant superman.
E. superhero aardvark.
Consider two traits for an organism, determined by two genes, each of which is governed by at least two alleles. In the case of a dihybrid individual, the gametes formed will be of either the parental type or the recombinant type. Recombinant type gametes are formed because of
A. independent assortment.
B. incomplete dominance.
C. the principle of dihybrids.
D. multiple alleles.
In what phases is the genetic material in the cell correctly referred to as chromatids?
A. metaphase and prophase
B. metaphase and telophase
C. interphase and telophase
D. anaphase and metaphase
E. interphase and prophase
Tall corn plants (T) are dominant to dwarf plants (tt). Solid green leaves (G) are dominant to leaves with a white tip (gg). A cross between two corn plants yielded the following phenotypes: 51 tall plants with a white tip on their leaves; 43 dwarf plants with solid leaves; 48 dwarf plants with white tips on their leaves; 45 tall plants with solid leaves. What are the genotypes of the parents that produced these plants?
A. None of the above
B. TtGg x ttgg
C. TtGg x TtGg
D. ttGG x TTgg
E. TtGg x Ttgg
Mendel observed that dominant traits
A. were absent in the F1 generation of pea plants that he used in his experiments.
B. are seen in all of the F1 hybrid pea plants in his experiments.
C. are expressed in all plants.
D. were the only traits seen in the F2 generation of pea plants in his experiments.
E. are only expressed in hybrids.
The genetic makeup of a particular trait in an individual is its
An allele is
A. always recessive.
B. an alternate form of a gene.
C. always one of a pair.
D. the dominant form of a gene.
E. the main factor determining a trait.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (MD) is inherited from an X-linked recessive allele. What is the probability that a son with Duchenne MD inherited this disease from his biological father?
If an organism’s diploid chromosome number is 18, how many different possible combinations of homologous chromosomes lining up during meiosis exist for the eggs or sperm produced by that organism?
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