Focusing Your Qualitative Study and Collecting Data

Order Description

This is a political Theory Paper and it is really important. I will upload the guidelines with the topic, which will consist of 3 questions, and each question has to be answered with at least 1 page and maximum of 2 pages, and please specify which question your answering at the beginning of each question. AND PLEASE MAKE SURE THE ANSWERS ARE FROM THOSE BOOKS ONLY (Resources)

1-Kant, Immanuel. 1983. “To Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch,” Perpetual Peace and Other Essays, pp.107-143.

2- Fanon, Frantz. 1963. The Wretched of the Earth, Preface, pp.1-62 and pp.235-239.

3-Kilcullen, David. 2009. The Accidental Guerilla: Fighting Small Wars in the Midst of a Big One, Chapter 1 and 5, pp. 1-38 and pp. 263-290.

4-Pape, Robert. Dying to Win: The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism, Chapters 1-3, pp.3-37.

5-Cuomo, Chris. 1996. “War is not just an event: Reflections on the significance of everyday violence,” Hypatia, Vol.11, No. 4, pp.30-45.

6-Foucault, Michel. 1995. “Panopticism,” Discipline and Punish, pp.195-228

7-Weizman, Eyal. 2012. “Targeted Assassinations: The Airborne Occupation,” from Hollowland, pp.237-258.

8-Galtung, Johan. 1990. “Cultural Violence,” Journal of Peace Research, Vol.27, No.3, pp.291-305.

9-Rajagopal, Balakrishnan. 2001. “The Violence of Development,” The Washington Post, August 9.

10-Nixon, Rob. 2011. Slow Violence and the Environmentalism of the Poor, Introduction and Chapter 4, pp.1-44 and pp.128-149.

IT DOES NOT MATTER HOW MANY SOURCES YOU USE BUT THEY HAVE TO BE FROM ONLY THE ONES SPECIFIED ABOVE. AND PLEASE INCLUDE AT LEAST 2 QUOTES ON EACH QUSTION.

2

Ryanair Analyses

Order Description

Assignment Information

This assignment requires you to write a 1750 word original essay / report critically evaluating Ryanair using the key frameworks of Global Business.

Case Study: Ryanair Case Study

Frameworks:

International business trade theories (Legal, political, cultural, economics).

FDI (Greenfield, JVs, Franchising),

Strategy (Strategic Group Analysis, Industry Life Cycle, Porters 5 Forces, Value Chain, Ansoff).

You can use diagrams to explain frameworks.

3

Evaluation of a drug study (graduate nurse practitioner

Order Description

Please find a drug study (mental health related preferred)on Methylcolbalamin (B12) and address the following questions

Research – Community Drug Study

.

Review a drug study on a complimentary medicine using the format below [copy and paste onto your document] answering all the questions thoroughly.

Evaluating Research

Ethical: safety of pt, consent obtained

Statement of Objectives: goals clearly defined

Experimental methods: appropriate to study goals, accuracy and reliability of the methods

Statistical methods: How were patients selected, were there enough patients, do the patients represent the population who will be using the drug, long term study how many lost to follow up & how was this accounted for, placebo, how were patients assigned to groups, were patients receiving other therapies during the trial & how was this accounted for, appropriate statistical tests. Patients that dropped out what was the reason?

Conclusions: Data if sound justify conclusions, does the drug offer significant advantages of cost, efficacy, safety over existing agents? Was the objective reached or did it change in the conclusion? What are your conclusions of this study weaknesses, strengths etc. Statistical values p, CI etc……

P value is significant when it less than 1 in 20 or expressed as P<0.05. This means that if the study was repeated 20 times at least 19 out of 20 would yield conclusions similar to those observed by the researchers. Any difference no matter how small may be found to be statistically significant if the sample size is large enough. A STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT RESULT, HOWEVER MAY NOT BE CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT. An outcome is said to be clinically significant if it makes enough difference to both patients and providers to change current practice.

Research – Community Drug Study

.

Review a drug study on a complimentary medicine using the format below [copy and paste onto your document] answering all the questions thoroughly.

Evaluating Research

Ethical: safety of pt, consent obtained

Statement of Objectives: goals clearly defined

Experimental methods: appropriate to study goals, accuracy and reliability of the methods

Statistical methods: How were patients selected, were there enough patients, do the patients represent the population who will be using the drug, long term study how many lost to follow up & how was this accounted for, placebo, how were patients assigned to groups, were patients receiving other therapies during the trial & how was this accounted for, appropriate statistical tests. Patients that dropped out what was the reason?

Conclusions: Data if sound justify conclusions, does the drug offer significant advantages of cost, efficacy, safety over existing agents? Was the objective reached or did it change in the conclusion? What are your conclusions of this study weaknesses, strengths etc. Statistical values p, CI etc……

P value is significant when it less than 1 in 20 or expressed as P<0.05. This means that if the study was repeated 20 times at least 19 out of 20 would yield conclusions similar to those observed by the researchers. Any difference no matter how small may be found to be statistically significant if the sample size is large enough. A STATISTICALLY SIGNIFICANT RESULT, HOWEVER MAY NOT BE CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT. An outcome is said to be clinically significant if it makes enough difference to both patients and providers to change current practice.

4.

Organizational Overview-Staples Inc

Order Description

Write a 5-7 pages organizational overview about Staples Inc.(Staples, Inc. is a large office supply chain store)

? Organizational Overview (5 to 7 pages)

? Structure and design

? Organizational Effectiveness

? Culture

? Environment

5

Designing a Study and 2-Summary of Recent Research

Order Description

Discusion 1:Create an example of a research question in an imaginary quantitative NURSING study you might design.

Identify the independent and dependent variable, and state the research hypothesis for your study. The variables must be categorical variables.

Select a nonparametric test from Chapter 12 that would effectively test this hypothesis.

Describe how you can test the above hypothesis using that nonparametric test.

discusion 2

Go to the online library and find a recent (no older than 3 years) article reporting the results of a nursing or health research study in which a statistical procedure from Chapter 12 in your textbook is used for analysis (try using health research and chi square as search terms, or use the name of a different nonparametric test).

Post the reference using APA format at the top of your response and then provide a BRIEF 1 paragraph summary of the study.

Discuss why the nonparametric test was used. In order to do this, you will need to state:

What was the Dependent Variable (DV) and at what level was it measured?

What was the Independent Variable (IV) and at what level was it measured?

You will then compare this to the type of data required and whether assumptions of the test were met.

Your posting will conclude with whether or not the finding was statistically significant or not, and a brief discussion of what it means for the finding in the study to be statistically significant at the 0.05 level.

6

using technology to improve teaching

Order Description

Introduction (500 words)

• Identifying the main topic; professional development; accountability;.

• Outline the aims and objectives of your study. Include the main question you will be addressing in the essay

• Explain why this topic is important

• Context

• Outline of the study

Literature Review (3000words)

• Structured review of literature relevant to your topic and also include ideas about using technology from a wider perspective.

• Adopt a thematic approach (avoid writing x said this, y argued that, z claimed the other)

• Definitions

• Main features of the topic. Use sub-headings to structure the text

• Summary (From this review, the following points have been identified)

Conclusions (1000 words)

• Return to the main question

• Provide an overview of the main outcomes of the study

• Set out the implications for professional practice

• Include some recommendations for further work

7

Case Analysis

Requirements :

Du Pont Freon Product’s Division

In March 1988, the world’s largest producer of chlorofluorocarbons must decide how to respond to a new scientific report issued by the U.S. government which includes new evidence about the destruction by CFCs of stratospheric ozone. The case requires us to craft a strategy for DuPont in the marketplace and in the political arena, considering numerous competing objectives and stakeholder groups.

Discussion questions:

1. What is your evaluation of Du Pont’s strategy with respect to its CFC business over the period 1974-1986?

2. How has the Montreal Protocol affected CFC markets? What will be the likely impacts of the Trends Panel Report?

3. What would you recommend that Joe Glas do now? Why?

8

Sociology Research paper

Order Description

RESEARCH QUESTION: How is race portrayed in news coverage regarding violence in the National Post?

KEY REMINDERS: You will choose articles that discuss violence from Aug.2014- Jan.2015 and please read through ALL instructions thoroughly, it tells you exactly what is expected.

SOC101Y – Quantitative Newspaper Content Analysis

Each student will be designing, conducting and writing up the results of a research project. The objectives are both to apply some of the sociological knowledge learned during the course, and to gain an appreciation for what is involved in the practice of sociology through the pursuit of an actual research project. The particular type of research project students will pursue is a quantitative newspaper content analysis. This document lays out the parameters for this year long project due at the end of March. It goes over the what, how and why of content analysis as a methodology. The content of this document offers a framework and instructions for the work students need to produce. While reading this whole document once at the beginning of the year is a very good idea, it is not expected you will understand all of its content right away. The skills and knowledge necessary will also be developed through weekly tutorials taking place between September and March, and digitally on Portal through your own TA’s Corner. Five small assignments will also be completed that represent various key aspects of the research design process. This document should be used as a reference to be consulted often, as well as the additional insights and advice from your TA and from Jenna.

This quantitative content analysis will not require students to deploy complicated statistical analysis, but it will involve conducting an analysis whose coding outcomes will be numerical values that can be represented in frequency tables or crosstabulation. Quantitative analysis, more generally, attempts to quantify data by numerically measuring the incidences of various themes of ideas in a chosen sample. While you have a broad latitude for the topic you will pursue, your content analysis ought to be a class analysis, race or ethnicity analysis, or gender analysis. It will be based on the analysis of a single or several days of publication of the Globe and Mail, National Post, and Toronto Star. Your ultimate research report you will submit for assessment at the end of March will include sections on your topic/literature review, on your designed research question and its rationale, on your operationalization/coding scheme, on data collection/sampling, on your findings, on your analysis of these findings and offering a tentative answer, on the strengths and weaknesses of your research project. Completing this project you will learn about the key role played by each of these aspects of the research design process, and how together can possibly lead to sociological

knowledge.

Your quantitative newspaper content analysis write-up in the form of a research report (ie NOT an essay) is due on March 30th. Three copies of the assignment must be submitted, through 1) Portal, 2) Turnitin.com AND 3) as a hard copy to Room 225, 725 Spadina Ave, no later than Monday, March 30th at 4pm.

The research report HAS to be between 7 and 8 double-spaced pages (not including title page, bibliography, and appendices), 12pt font (Arial or Times New Roman), with one inch margin all around. Note: turning in a longer report is not an option. Part of the difficulty associated with the research report writing process is summarizing your research in a concise way by making decisions about how to best use the space you have.

The outcome of your work needs to be written following the structure of a research report which should include the following sections, in order, and sticking to the page requirements:

1-Introduction (about 1/2 page)?2-Topic/Lit Review (about 1 page)?3-Research Question/Rationale (about 1/2 page)?4-Operationalization/Unit of Observation/Coding Scheme (about 2 pages) 5-Sampling/Data Gathering (about 1/2 page)?6-Findings/Frequency /Crosstabs (about 1 page)?7-Discussion/Data Analysis/Answer (about 1 page) 8-Reflection/Strengths/Challenges (about 1/2 page)?9-Conclusion (about 1/2 page)

Introduction (about 1/2 page)?In the introduction, you state what your research question is and offer an outline of the content of your research report. Introduction is there to frame your work. It’s there to help set expectations for your reader about what they are about to read.

Topic/Lit Review (about 1 page)?This section is to set the context of your eventual contribution. Discuss what is the broad sociological topic you are interested in, and then the more specific aspect you are proposing to investigate. You should pull from the “literature” which here means the course material. (note: you are allowed to draw from outside of course material, to clarify and add depth, but this is NOT required).

Research Question/Rationale (about 1/2 page)?This section is where you re-state the clear and specific research question you propose to investigate along with offering a rationale for the appropriateness of pursuing this particular question. Research questions are the foundations of research project, so here justify your choice. Research question, and the rationale, and variables you use. Explain to your readers why it is a good research question, how is it measurable.

Operationalization/Unit of Observation/Coding Scheme (about 2 pages)?This section is at the center of your research design efforts. Discuss what is your unit of observation. Then clearly lay out how you will measure your key variables looking at these units of observation. Do so by creating a detailed coding scheme that makes it clear how each category is constructed.

Data Gathering/Sampling (about 1/2 page)

Describe your data gathering process, including sampling. How many pieces did you gather, how did you choose them, describe the timeline over which this took place.

Findings/Frequency Tables/Crosstabs (about 1 page) Present your frequency table(s) or crosstab and describe it .

Discussion/Data Analysis/Answer (about 1 page)?Discuss the patterns and variations you are observing in your frequency table(s) or crosstab. Make sense of them to see what answer(s) they point to in regards to your research question. Note that since you will not be running the statistical calculations necessary to ascertain whether the patterns/variations you found are statistically significant, your discussion of your findings remain tentative, and not definitive. This is very important to remember.

Reflection/Strengths/Challenges (about 1/2 page)?This section is an opportunity for you to reflect on what you believe are the strengths of the research project you completed and what might be its biggest challenges.

Conclusion (about 1/2 page)?An opportunity to offer some concluding thoughts about how the research project revisiting the tentative answer to your research question. What contribution would your research project make to the “literature” once its findings have been verified?

This quantitative newspaper content analysis counts for 20% of your final grade. Beyond the “SOC101Y – Content Analysis” document you are reading right now, the principal sources of assistance are tutorials and the TA Corners on Blackboard. Please feel free to post any and all questions.

What is Content Analysis

Content analysis is the the study of recorded human communication. This includes detailed, systematic analysis of “text” to identify patterns or themes. As newspaper readers for example, we are perfectly justified in applying our individual worldviews to texts and enacting our interest in what those texts mean to us; in fact we cannot do otherwise. But as content analysis researchers, we must do our best to explicate what we are doing and describe how we derive our judgments, so that others—especially our critics—can replicate our results.

Content analysis is one of several important research techniques in the social sciences. The content analyst views data as representations not of physical events but of texts, images, and expressions that are created to be seen, read, interpreted, and acted on for their meanings, and must therefore be analyzed with such uses in mind. Analyzing texts in the contexts of their uses distinguishes content analysis from other methods of inquiry. Content analysis is essentially a coding operation. Coding is the process of transforming raw data into a standardized form. Making a judgment about an object according to a set of agreed upon dimensions (some are socially pre-determined (e.g. age) others you must create (e.g. engagement in learning). What we code for depends on our research questions, meaning what we are interested in.

Content analysis is a research technique for making replicable and valid inferences from texts to the contexts of their use. Examples of inferences:

• •

• • • • • • • •

One might date a document from the vocabulary used within it?One might infer the religious affiliations of political leaders from the metaphors used in their speeches?One might infer the readability of an essay from a measure of the complexity of its composition?One might infer the problems of a city from the concerns expressed in letters written to the city’s mayor office?One might infer the prevailing conceptualizations of writers and readers from the proximities of words in frequently used texts?One might infer editorial biases from a comparison of the editorial pages of different newspapers?One might infer the identity of the author of an unsigned document from the document’s statistical similarities to texts whose authors are known?One might infer the political affiliations of citizens from the TV shows they choose to watch?One might infer an individual’s propensity to engage in hate crime from the ethnic categories he uses in ordinary speech?One might infer the likelihood of war from the coverage of international affairs in the elite newspapers of neighboring countries

As a?from?provides new insights, increases a researcher’s understanding of particular phenomena, or informs practical actions. Content analysis is a scientific tool. Scientific research must also yield valid results, in the sense that the research effort is open for careful scrutiny and the resulting claims can be upheld in the face of independently available evidence.

technique, content analysis involves specialized procedures. It is learnable and divorceable just the personal authority of the researcher. As a research technique, content analysis

“Text” has a broad definition here that includes all sorts of social artefacts/human communications:

• Newspapers, magazines, books, journals

• Government or NGO documents/websites

• Sermons, speeches, debates

• Social media sites

• Television, radio/podcasts

• Police reports, laws, legal decisions

• Commercials, advertisements

• Paintings, logos, graffiti, murals

• Many others ?Here are six features of texts that are relevant to definition of content analysis

• €Texts have no objective—that is, no reader-independent—qualities

• €Texts do not have single meanings that could be “found”, “identified”, and “described” ?for what they are

• €The meanings invoked by texts need to be shared

• €Meanings (contents) speak to something other than the given texts, even where convention suggests that messages “contain” them or texts “have” them

• €Texts have meanings relative to particular contexts, discourses, or purposes. (Once an analyst has chosen a context for a particular body of text and clearly understands that context, certain kinds of questions become answerable and others make no sense. The same body of texts can therefore yield different findings when examined by different analysts and with reference to different groups of readers. For a content analysis to be replicable, the analysts must explicate the context that guides their inferences. Without such explicitness, anything would go)

• €The nature of text demands that content analysts draw specific inferences from a body of texts to their chosen context—from print to what that printed matter means to particular users, from how analysts regard a body of texts to how selected audiences are affected by those texts, from available data to unobserved phenomena (Content analysis infer answers to particular research questions from their texts. Their inferences are merely more systematic, explicitly informed, and ideally verifiable than what ordinary readers do with texts. Whether the analysts’ world makes sense to their scientific peers depends on how compellingly the analysts present that world) ?The crucial distinction between text and what other research methods take as their starting point is that a text means something to someone, it is produced by someone to have meanings for someone else, and these meanings therefore must not be ignored and must not violate why the text exists in the first place. Text—the reading of text, the use of text within a social context, and the analysis of text—serves as a convenient metaphor in content analysis. Most content analyses start with data that are not intended to be analyzed to answer specific questions. They are texts in the sense that they are meant to be read, interpreted, and understood by people other than the analysts. Readers may decompose what they read into meaningful units, recognize compelling structures, rearticulate their understandings sequentially or holistically, and act on them sensibly. ?So why do we analyze social artefacts? ?To gain insight into what is deemed significant and made salient in human communications, understanding that these communications both reflect and help to shape various aspects of the social world. How individuals and groups imbue meaning in social artefacts which gives us an insight into how society is organized through a meticulous study and analysis of social artefacts. With new conceptualizations and an empirical orientation, contemporary content analysts join other researchers in seeking valid knowledge or practical support for actions and critique. However, unlike researchers who employ other empirical techniques, content analysis examine data, printed matter, images, or sounds—texts—in order to understand what they mean to people, what they enable or prevent, and what the information conveyed by them does. Content analysis is particularly well suited to answering the classic question of communications research: “Who says what, to whom, why, and how”. It cannot answer all questions, questions that may require field research, interviews, or experiments. ?A form of unobtrusive research, or methods of studying social behavior without affecting it. It makes sense of what is mediated between people—textual matter, symbols, messages, information, mass-media content, and technology-supported social interactions—without perturbing or affecting those who handle textual matter. As Heisenberg’s uncertainly principle tells us, acts of measurement interfere with the phenomena being assessed and create contaminated observations; the deeper the observer probes, the greater the severity of the contamination. For the social sciences, Webb, Campbell, Schwartz, and Sechrest (1966) have enumerated several ways in which subjects react to being involved in scientific inquiries and how these can introduce errors into the data that are analyzed:

• • • • •

Through the subjects’ awareness of being observed or tested?Through the artificiality of the task or the subjects’ lack of experiences with the task Through the expectations that subjects bring to the role of interviewee or respondent Through the influence of the measurement process on the subjects?Through stereotypes held by subjects and the subjects’ preferences for casting certain responses?Through experimenter/interviewer interaction effects on the subjects.

One of?is that it avoids those challenges research techniques involving human beings entails.

the strengths of unobtrusive research, such as the content analysis students will perform,

RESEARCH QUESTION/RATIONALE

Your research question is the foundation of your research project. A research question is a question which you do NOT already have the answer to, a question that is answerable through meticulous research. At its most basic, that is what a research question is. There are two reasons for content analysts to start with research questions, ideally in advance of undertaking any inquiries: efficiency and empirical grounding. Content analysts who start with a research question read texts for a purpose, not for what an author may lead them to think or what they say in the abstract. The pursuit of answers to research questions also grounds content analysis empirically. All answers to research questions entail truth claims that could be supported, if not by direct observation then at least by plausible argumentation from related observations. Formulating research questions so that the answers could be validated in principle protects content analysts from getting lost in mere abstractions or self-serving categorizations. Texts acquire significance (meanings, contents, symbolic qualities, and interpretations) in the contexts of their use. Although data enter a content analysis from outside, they become texts to the analyst within the context that the analyst has chosen to read them—that is, from within the analysis.

A research question is a clear, focused, concise, complex question around which you center your research. You should ask a question about an issue that you are genuinely curious about?Your research question should be focused. Research questions must be specific enough to be well covered in the space available. Your research question should be complex. Research questions should not be answerable with a simple “yes” or “no” or by easily-found facts. They should, instead, require both research and analysis on the part of the writer. A good research question is one that is appropriate to the space (one 7-8 page research report, not a book), time (written for a single course, not for a 4 year PhD), method (content analysis, not interview, fieldwork or experiments) and object of study (newspapers) of your research project. It also has to be a sociological research question, meaning investigating a sociological matter as defined by a research question that displays the sociological imagination. Your research question needs to

fulfill two more conditions, it must posit the variables you are intending on studying, and your research question cannot attempt to establish a causal relationship. No causality. But before we discuss causality, lets go over variables.

Variables?The idea of a system composed of variables may seem rather strange, so let’s look at an?analogy. The subject of a physician’s attention is the patient. If the patient is ill, the physician’s purpose is to help the patient get well. By contrast, a medical researcher’s subject matter is different: the variables that cause a disease, for example. The medical researcher may study the physician’s patient, but for the researcher that patient is relevant only as a carrier of the disease. That is not to say that medical researchers don’t care about real people. They certainly do. Their ultimate purpose in studying diseases is to protect people from them. But in their research, they are less interested in individual patients than they are in the patterns governing the appearance of disease—in essence, the patients are relevant only for what they reveal about the disease under study. In fact, when they can study a disease meaningfully without involving actual patients, they do so.

Social research, then, involves the study of variables and their relationships. Social theories are written in a language of variables, and people get involved only as the “carriers” of those variables. Variables, in turn, have what social researchers call attributes or values Attributes are characteristics or qualities that describe an object—in this case, a person. Examples are female, Asian, alienated, conservative, dishonest, intelligent, and farmer. Anything you might say to describe yourself or someone else involves an attribute. Variables, on the other hand, are logical groupings of attributes. Thus, for example, male and female are attributes, and sex or gender are the variables composed of these two attributes. The variable occupation is composed of attributes such as farmer, professor, and truck driver. Social class is a variable composed of a set of attributes such as upper class, middle class, and lower class. Sometimes it helps to think of attributes as the “categories” that make up a variable. For this research project, students should not seek to investigate more than two separate variables.

Example of difference between variables and attributes:?Social common social concepts: Female, young, gender, upper class, occupation, Asian, age, plumber, race/ethnicity, social class

Variables

Gender?Age Race/ethnicity Social class Occupation

Attributes

Woman, man?Young, middle-aged, old?Caucasian, Aboriginal, Asian, Latino(a) Lower class, middle class, upper class Plumber, carpenter, sociologist, lawyer

The relationship between attributes and variables lies at the heart of both description and explanation in science. For example, we might describe a university class in terms of the variable gender by reporting the observed frequencies of the attributes male and female.

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