Explain the difference between descriptive and inferential samples.
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Instructions for class assignment: Watch videos and read Urdan chapters 1 through 4. Complete the attached quiz.
- Define the following in one phrase:
- Categorical Data & give an example of how it is displayed and what type of variable represents this data: _________________________________________________________
- Quantitative (Numerical) Data & give an example of how it is displayed and what type of variable represents this data:
- Explain the difference between descriptive and inferential samples:
- Answer the following questions by highlighting the answer in yellow:
- What is the definition of a population?
|a.||the objects (people, animals, etc.) measured in an experiment|
|b.||objects that share characteristics defined by a researcher|
|c.||objects that share characteristics predicted by a study|
|d.||objects selected randomly|
- Which of the following is the best description of the purpose of a sample?
|a.||to provide results that a researcher can generalize to a population|
|b.||to provide data that a researcher can generalize to another sample|
|c.||to define who can and cannot be a research participant|
|d.||to provide access to research subjects|
- Which of the following could be a population of interest in a study?
|a.||women age 50 to 79|
|b.||women age 50 to 79 living in the United States|
|c.||women age 50 to 79 living in the United States who have at least one child|
|d.||Any of the above could be a population.|
- Round 14.575 to two decimal places.
- What is a distribution?
|a.||a data set with a large range|
|b.||a data set that has been sorted|
|c.||the whole set of values for one variable in a data set|
|d.||the whole set of variables in a data set|
- What is frequency?
|a.||a tally of the number of different values a variable can take|
|b.||a tally of the number of occurrences of one value in a distribution|
|c.||a value that occurs often in the distribution|
|d.||a count of the total number of subjects represented in a distribution|
- Calculate the mean for these data: 2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 6
|b.||3.33||d.||none of the above|
- In the following data set, which score is the outlier?
27, 34, 36, 38, 74
- Find the median for this data set: 7, 8, 35, 36, 41, 90
- What is the first thing you would do to calculate the median for these data?
1, 6, 13, 2, 5, 3, 27, 4
|a.||Add the numbers together.|
|b.||Arrange the numbers in order.|
|c.||Count to find sample size.|
|d.||Decide whether there are an even or odd number.|
- In the formula for the mean, , what does mean?
|a.||sum of||c.||center of|
|b.||son of||d.||score of|
- Calculate the most appropriate measure of central tendency for this data set of interval level numbers: 1, 1, 3, 5, 30
|a.||median = 3|
|b.||mean = 8|
|c.||mode = 1|
|d.||Any of the above|
- What percentile rank is the same as the median, and why?
|a.||49th: different number of scores above and below|
|b.||49th: equal number of scores above and below|
|c.||50th: different number of scores above and below|
|d.||50th: equal number of scores above and below|
- Identify the mode in the following data set: 2, 3, 5, 8
|b.||3||d.||There is no mode.|
- Standard deviation can be defined as an averge deviation between the scores and the mean in the distribution
- Why should you wait until the end of your calculations and round your final answer?
- Rounding as you go takes more time than it is worth.
- Calculators can carry a lot of digits with no trouble.
- Rounding as you go may make the final answer less accurate.
- You would get the same result either way, so wait till the end.
- Tom was reading a report of a study and was trying to remember the difference between the small n and capital N. This is what he remembered: ‘n’ is the number of scores in the sample, and ‘N’ is the number of scores in the population.
- Range is basically a concept about
|a.||score meaning.||c.||score frequency.|
|b.||score distance.||d.||score importance.|
- What is the range of the following data? 77, 89, 92, 92, 98
- What kinds of numbers result from calculating variance?
|a.||non-negative numbers||c.||non-positive numbers|
|b.||non-zero numbers||d.||negative numbers|
- In the formula for estimated population variance, why is the denominator n–1?
|a.||to correct for sampling limitations|
|b.||to make the sample as large as the population|
|c.||to put the variance in the same metric as the scores|
|d.||to increase the range|
- Which of the following distributions is most likely to be negatively skewed?
|a.||mile running speeds for a random sample of people|
|b.||mile running speeds for couch potatoes|
|c.||mile running speeds for Olympic runners|
|d.||mile running speeds for people who attend the Olympics|
- A normal distribution looks most like which of the following shapes?
|b.||a top hat|
|c.||profile of a mountain range with many mountains|
|d.||profile of a camel with two humps|
- Kurtosis refers to a distribution’s
- When a distribution has a peak that is higher than that found in a normal, bell-shaped distribution, it is called leptokurtic.
- A political candidate attracted mostly older voters. Which measure of central tendency would the press probably report in articles about his popularity?
- mean c. mode
- median d. none of the above
- A survey question asked students to respond on a scale of 1 (strongly disagree) through 5 (strongly agree) to an opinion question. Use the graph to describe the results. Select all that apply.
|a.||The most popular response was strongly agree.|
|b.||Most people agreed or strongly agreed with the statement.|
|c.||Very few people were neutral.|
|d.||About the same amount strongly agreed and strongly disagreed.|
|e.||The distribution is negatively skewed.|
|f.||The distribution is positively skewed.|
- 28. The level of significance usually set in nursing studies is at:
- (p < 0.5)
- (p < .05)
- (p < .03)
- (p < .01)
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