# Explain the difference between descriptive and inferential samples.

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Instructions for class assignment: Watch videos and read Urdan chapters 1 through 4. Complete the attached quiz.

- Define the following in one phrase:
- Categorical Data & give an example of how it is displayed and what type of variable represents this data: _________________________________________________________
- Quantitative (Numerical) Data & give an example of how it is displayed and what type of variable represents this data:

____________________________________________________________

- Explain the difference between descriptive and inferential samples:

____________________________________________________________

- Answer the following questions by highlighting the answer in yellow:

- What is the definition of a population?

a. | the objects (people, animals, etc.) measured in an experiment |

b. | objects that share characteristics defined by a researcher |

c. | objects that share characteristics predicted by a study |

d. | objects selected randomly |

- Which of the following is the best description of the purpose of a sample?

a. | to provide results that a researcher can generalize to a population |

b. | to provide data that a researcher can generalize to another sample |

c. | to define who can and cannot be a research participant |

d. | to provide access to research subjects |

- Which of the following could be a population of interest in a study?

a. | women age 50 to 79 |

b. | women age 50 to 79 living in the United States |

c. | women age 50 to 79 living in the United States who have at least one child |

d. | Any of the above could be a population. |

- Round 14.575 to two decimal places.

a. | 14.55 | c. | 14.57 |

b. | 14.56 | d. | 14.58 |

- What is a
*distribution*?

a. | a data set with a large range |

b. | a data set that has been sorted |

c. | the whole set of values for one variable in a data set |

d. | the whole set of variables in a data set |

- What is
*frequency?*

a. | a tally of the number of different values a variable can take |

b. | a tally of the number of occurrences of one value in a distribution |

c. | a value that occurs often in the distribution |

d. | a count of the total number of subjects represented in a distribution |

- Calculate the mean for these data: 2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 6

a. | 3.00 | c. | 3.50 |

b. | 3.33 | d. | none of the above |

- In the following data set, which score is the outlier?

27, 34, 36, 38, 74

a. | 27 | c. | 38 |

b. | 34 | d. | 74 |

- Find the median for this data set: 7, 8, 35, 36, 41, 90

a. | 35 | c. | 36 |

b. | 35.5 | d. | 36.5 |

- What is the first thing you would do to calculate the median for these data?

1, 6, 13, 2, 5, 3, 27, 4

a. | Add the numbers together. |

b. | Arrange the numbers in order. |

c. | Count to find sample size. |

d. | Decide whether there are an even or odd number. |

- In the formula for the mean,
**,**what does mean?

a. | sum of | c. | center of |

b. | son of | d. | score of |

- Calculate the
**most**appropriate measure of central tendency for this data set of interval level numbers: 1, 1, 3, 5, 30

a. | median = 3 |

b. | mean = 8 |

c. | mode = 1 |

d. | Any of the above |

- What percentile rank is the same as the median, and why?

a. | 49th: different number of scores above and below |

b. | 49th: equal number of scores above and below |

c. | 50th: different number of scores above and below |

d. | 50th: equal number of scores above and below |

- Identify the mode in the following data set: 2, 3, 5, 8

a. | 2 | c. | 5 |

b. | 3 | d. | There is no mode. |

- Standard deviation can be defined as an averge deviation between the scores and the mean in the distribution

- True
- False

- Why should you wait until the end of your calculations and round your final answer?
- Rounding as you go takes more time than it is worth.
- Calculators can carry a lot of digits with no trouble.
- Rounding as you go may make the final answer less accurate.
- You would get the same result either way, so wait till the end.

- Tom was reading a report of a study and was trying to remember the difference between the small n and capital N. This is what he remembered: ‘n’ is the number of scores in the sample, and ‘N’ is the number of scores in the population.

- True
- False

- Range is basically a concept about

a. | score meaning. | c. | score frequency. |

b. | score distance. | d. | score importance. |

- What is the range of the following data? 77, 89, 92, 92, 98

a. | 21 | c. | 77 |

b. | 22 | d. | 98 |

- What kinds of numbers result from calculating variance?

a. | non-negative numbers | c. | non-positive numbers |

b. | non-zero numbers | d. | negative numbers |

- In the formula for estimated population variance, why is the denominator n–1?

a. | to correct for sampling limitations |

b. | to make the sample as large as the population |

c. | to put the variance in the same metric as the scores |

d. | to increase the range |

- Which of the following distributions is most likely to be negatively skewed?

a. | mile running speeds for a random sample of people |

b. | mile running speeds for couch potatoes |

c. | mile running speeds for Olympic runners |

d. | mile running speeds for people who attend the Olympics |

- A normal distribution looks most like which of the following shapes?

a. | a bell |

b. | a top hat |

c. | profile of a mountain range with many mountains |

d. | profile of a camel with two humps |

- Kurtosis refers to a distribution’s

a. | outliers. | c. | height. |

b. | modality. | d. | tilt. |

- When a distribution has a peak that is higher than that found in a normal, bell-shaped distribution, it is called leptokurtic.

- True
- False

- A political candidate attracted mostly older voters. Which measure of central tendency would the press probably report in articles about his popularity?
- mean c. mode
- median d. none of the above

- A survey question asked students to respond on a scale of 1 (strongly disagree) through 5 (strongly agree) to an opinion question. Use the graph to describe the results. Select all that apply.

a. | The most popular response was strongly agree. |

b. | Most people agreed or strongly agreed with the statement. |

c. | Very few people were neutral. |

d. | About the same amount strongly agreed and strongly disagreed. |

e. | The distribution is negatively skewed. |

f. | The distribution is positively skewed. |

- 28. The level of significance usually set in nursing studies is at:
- (p < 0.5)
- (p < .05)
- (p < .03)
- (p < .01)

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